Issued: privately by organization
publicly by trusted third party
Scope of use: how widely identifier used, how widely accepted
single sign-on: based on a scope that encompasses everything that a user may need to do
Administration: creation, revocation, distribution. Integration into
authentication & authorization systems.
Centralized vs. distributed admin.
Naming standards: X.500 OSI directory service: process used to manage the unique names that are required to be able to have unique IDs of systems, users, resources.
Smart cards: chip readable with PIN. physical ID, electronic ID.
PKI public key infrastructure: certificates with public key
Identity errors: accidental or malicious (identity theft).