Security advisories from vendors & security organizations (CERT, CIAC), mailing lists
Hardware & firmware (eg. BIOS): only small portion
Software: OS & applications. Most prevalent type of vulnerability, the most exploited.
Infrastructure: power grid, telecom. outside your control
Processes: policies misinterpreted & not properly implemented.
Known vulnerabilites: largest part of successful attacks. Hacker tools available, make vulnerabilites exploitable by anyone. Patches available quickly, but need to be applied diligently.
Most security issues come from SW with poorly designed (or no)
single user, unitaksing standalone system (eg. DOS) now multiuser, multitasking networked Windows
Nearly impossible to effectively add security to a system after it's designed.
Need to trust your SW suppliers, if can't inspect source code. SW is
SW security testing: unexpected inputs
race condition: processes run at different times/orders
interfaces: validate input
Innovative misuse: hard to imagine by developers.
tiger team attack system as hacker would
Security dependent on system implementation, installation, administration.
E.g. one wrong permission on one file (weak link) can lose the enterprise.
Minimal security out of the box. security viewed as an add-on (still?), adds to admin burden, reduce admin productivity work.
Admin training important. their errors worse than user errors.
Limited & difficult to locate security documents.
Social engineering: effective persuasion, conning: sympathy, empathy, flattery, intimidation.