Database jargon

Jargon and concepts everyone who's taken a database course must know. Plagarized from various sources.

a shared, integrated collection of data and metadata about the data. Logically related data stored in a single data repository, avoiding scattered islands of information.
a list of information.
A database, also called a database server, is the key to solving the problems of information management. In a relational database, collections of related information are organized into structures called tables. A table is a two-dimensional object made up of columns and rows. Each table contains rows (records) that are composed of columns (fields). The tables contain common columns that allow data from one table to be related to another. Tables are the basic database objects and contain all the user data. When creating a table, it is important that you define that data that you want to store in the table. You need to specify the datatype of the data and any restrictions on the range of values.
The tables are stored in the database in structures called schemas, which are logical structures/containers of data where database users store their objects.
databases objects include tables, indexes, views, sequences, synonyms, functions, procedures, packages, triggers.
A schema is a collection of database objects. A schema is owned by a database user and has the same name as that user, such as the HR schema. Schema objects are logical structures created by users. Objects can define areas of the database to hold data, such as tables, or can consist of just a definition, such as views. Every object in the database belongs to just one schema and has a unique name within that schema. Generally, you place all of the objects that belong to a single application in the same schema.
you need to specify a datatype for the data that is used by the object. When you create a table, you must specify a datatype for each of its columns. A datatype associates a fixed set of properties with the values that can be used in a column, or in an argument of a procedure or function. Each column value and constant in a SQL statement has a datatype, which is associated with a specific storage format, constraints, and a valid range of values. The most common datatypes are character, numeric, and date.
DBMS (database management system)
software that manages the databases. Stores data structures, relationships between those structures, and access paths to the structures. Well-known vendors: Oracle, IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Sybase
Relational DBMS
all data is visible to the user as tables; all operations work on these tables.
Codd's 12 rules are the semiofficial definition of a relational database; ideal goal.
Vendors compete on performance, features, development tools, support, apps that use the DBMS.

Uniquely-named tables. Each with one or more named columns of particular data types arranged in specific left-to-right order. Each table with zero or more rows each containing single data value in each column. Rows are unordered.
Tables are related/linked by common data values in the primary key and foreign key columns of a parent table and child table, respectively.

Table where every row is different from all other rows (due to primary key) is a mathematical relation, whence the name "relational database". (not because the tables are "related" to other tables). Table is a subset of Cartesian product of columns possible values.
Table stores information about one kind of thing.
Table name should be singular.?
Row contains information for only one item. Each item's information is stored in just one row.

description of the data characteristics and the relationships that link the data. Stored in the database just as regular data is. Information about tables, columns, key, constraints etc. Can be accessed by front-ends.
Spreadsheet, Database vs
millions/billions of rows
security/access control
relationships/links between tables
data quality constraints e.g. length limits, non-empty, within ranges, sensibly related to other tables' data
SQL (Structured Query Language)
relatively simple, intuitive, English-like, high-level langauge that handles most aspects of data manipulation. Supported by all major RDBMS.
All database operations are performed using SQL statements.
database sublanguage used to control ALL of the functions that a DBMS provides for its users: database access, nonprocedural language. Users describe in SQL what they want done, and the SQL language compiler automatically generates a procedure to navigate the database and perform the desired task.
SQL is a interactive query, database programming, database administration, client/server, Internet data access, distributed, database gateway language.
Useful for doing: database admin, programming, ad-hoc querying.
ad-hoc query: spur of the moment, interactive query made possible by DBMS's query language
a nonprocedural programming language that enables you to access a relational database. Using SQL statements, you can query tables to display data, create objects, modify objects, and perform administrative tasks. All you need to do is describe in SQL what you want done, and the SQL language compiler automatically generates a procedure to navigate the database and perform the desired task.
set/declarative processing: tell the database what is required, not how each piece of data should be handled.
SQL dialects per vendor are extensions into programming language constructs: variables, loops, error-handling, arrays, etc. e.g. Oracle PL/SQL
SQL2003 is ANSI/ISO standard.
as a language, has identifiers, literals, operators, reserverd words / keywords.

2 categories of DBMS by use:

production/transaction/OLTP (online transaction processing)
most-encountered DB. Many short transactions with response time important. Emphasis on data integrity, data consisitency, operational speed. Originally, RDBMS was considered too slow for OLTP (IBM's heirarchical IMS dominated; still used).
data warehouse/OLAP (online analytical processing)/decision support
designed for data mining; large; built from production database historical and aggregated data; for large, complex queries at middle/upper management level to make tactical/strategic decisions. "decision support systems". Often: time-series data, statistical summarizing, read-only queries. Data extraction, transformation, and validation from OLTP databases
redundant data
unnecessarily duplicated data; bad stuff, must avoid. Leads to data inconsistency (different and conflicting versions of the same data), i.e. lack of data integrity. aka data anomaly (insertion/deletion/modification anomalies)
person, place, thing, event about which data is collected and stored
Corresponding terms in 3 models
Relational model (theory) SQL DBMS (implementation) File system
relation/entity set table file
tuple/entity row record
attribute column field